- Dissociative Amnesia (Psychogenic Amnesia)
This involves people being unable to recall specific information about themselves, often due to a traumatic event or intensely stressful situation. This is not caused by physical illness or injury, such as a concussion, and cannot be explained by forgetfulness. The person will be unable to recall specific events or may appear to suddenly “wake up” to their surroundings and not understand how they got there.
- Dissociative Fugue
This type of dissociation involves a lengthy period of dissociative amnesia, and it involves traveling away from the individual’s home, place of work, or school. During dissociative fugue, a person will likely appear normal to others and participate in normal activities like driving, riding on a plane, walking, and more. However, the individual will forget these events, and when the episode is over, will likely not be able to account for missing time, how they acted during that missing time, and where they went.
- Depersonalization Disorder
People experiencing this condition may not show any outward signs of being in a different mental state, but self-report that they frequently experience feelings of detachment from themselves, their identity, and the events around them. They report that they feel as though they are watching their lives like a movie from outside their bodies. This is a common experience among adolescents, and it tends to taper off about age 20.
- Dissociative Identity Disorder
Originally called multiple personality disorder, this condition involves the formation of two or more distinct personalities who “share a body.” Typically, there is a primary personality, with several subordinate personalities who occasionally take over the physical form and express themselves. Personalities may or may not know biographical information about each other, and they can be radically different from the primary individual; for example, one personality may be a large man, but the primary personality and the body is a young, petite woman. The personalities are currently believed to be fragments of a whole sense of identity, which dissociated due to intense, often repeated trauma in early life. This may or may not be observable by loved ones, coworkers, and other people, as personalities may show up to interact with different individuals.
- Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
This involves consistent or frequent bouts of dissociation from the self or others, which do not meet the criteria for other dissociative disorders.